The Black Cats: When China shot down five U-2 spy planes at the height of the Cold War

Seoul, South Korea

When a Chinese language high-altitude balloon suspected of spying was noticed over america lately, the US Air Pressure responded by sending up a high-flying espionage asset of its personal: the U-2 reconnaissance jet.

It was the Chilly-Battle period spy aircraft that took the high-resolution pictures – to not point out its pilot’s selfie – that reportedly satisfied Washington the Chinese language balloon was gathering intelligence and never, as Beijing continues to insist, learning the climate.

In doing so, the aircraft performed a key function in an occasion that despatched tensions between the world’s two largest economies hovering, and shone a global highlight on the strategies the 2 governments use to maintain tabs on one another.

Till now, many of the media’s focus has been on the balloon – particularly, how a vessel popularly seen as a relic of a bygone period of espionage may presumably stay related within the trendy spy’s playbook. But to many navy historians, it’s the involvement of that different image of a bygone time, the U-2, that’s way more telling.

The U-2 has an extended and storied historical past with regards to espionage battles between the US and China. Within the Nineteen Sixties and Nineteen Seventies, no less than 5 of them have been shot down whereas on surveillance missions over China.

These losses haven’t been as extensively reported as could be anticipated – and for good purpose. The Central Intelligence Company (CIA), which was chargeable for all of America’s U-2s on the time the planes have been shot down, has by no means formally defined what they have been doing there.

Including to the thriller was that the planes have been being flown not by US pilots nor underneath a US flag, however by pilots from Taiwan who, in a placing parallel to at this time’s balloon saga, claimed to be concerned in a climate analysis initiative.

A US Air Force pilot looks down at the suspected Chinese surveillance balloon from the cockpit of his U-2 spy plane on February 3, 2023.

That the CIA can be tight-lipped over what these American-built spy planes have been doing is hardly stunning.

However the company’s continued silence greater than 50 years later – it didn’t reply to a CNN request for touch upon this text – speaks volumes about simply how delicate the problem was each on the time and stays at this time.

The US authorities has a basic rule of 25 years for computerized declassification of delicate materials. Nonetheless, one in all its often-cited causes for ignoring this rule is in these instances the place revealing the knowledge would “trigger critical hurt to relations between the US and a overseas authorities, or to ongoing diplomatic actions of the US.”

Modern accounts of what the planes have been doing – by the Taiwan pilots who have been shot down, retired US Air Pressure officers and navy historians amongst them – depart little doubt as to why it might have brought on a stir.

The planes – in response to accounts by the pilots in a Taiwan-made documentary movie and histories printed on US authorities web sites – had been transferred to Taiwan as a part of a top-secret mission to eavesdrop on Communist China’s rising navy capabilities, together with its nascent nuclear program, which was receiving assist from the Soviet Union.

The newly developed U-2, nicknamed the Dragon Girl, appeared to supply the right vessel. The US had already used it to spy on the Soviet’s home nuclear program as its high-altitude capabilities – it was designed within the Fifties to succeed in “a staggering and unprecedented altitude of 70,000 toes,” within the phrases of its developer Lockheed – put it out of the vary of antiaircraft missiles.

Or so the US had thought. In 1960, the Soviets shot down a CIA-operated U-2 and put its pilot Gary Powers on trial. Washington was pressured to desert its cowl story (that Powers had been on a climate reconnaissance mission and had drifted into Soviet airspace after blacking out from oxygen depletion), admit the spy aircraft program, and barter for Powers to be returned in a prisoner swap.

“Since America didn’t wish to have its personal pilots shot down in a U-2 the way in which Gary Powers had been over the Soviet Union in 1960, which brought on a significant diplomatic incident, they turned to Taiwan, and Taiwan was all too prepared to permit its pilots to be skilled and to do an extended collection of overflights over mainland China,” Chris Pocock, writer of “50 Years of the U-2,” defined within the 2018 documentary movie “Misplaced Black Cats thirty fifth Squadron.”

A mobile chase car pursues a U-2 Dragon Lady as it prepares to land at Beale Air Force Base in California in June 2015.

Just like the U-2, Taiwan – often known as the Republic of China (ROC) – appeared an ideal alternative for the mission. The self-governing island to the east of the Chinese language mainland was at odds with the Communist management in Beijing – because it stays at this time – and at the moment in historical past had a mutual protection treaty with Washington.

That treaty has lengthy since lapsed, however Taiwan stays a degree of main tensions between China and america, with Chinese language chief Xi Jinping vowing to deliver it underneath the Communist Get together’s management and Washington nonetheless obligated to offer it with the means to defend itself.

As we speak, the US sells F-16 fighter jets to Taiwan as a part of that obligation. Within the Nineteen Sixties, Taiwan received the US-made U-2s.

The island’s navy arrange a squadron that might formally be often known as the “Climate Reconnaissance and Analysis Part.”

However its members – pilots from Taiwan who had been skilled within the US to fly U-2s – knew it by a distinct title: the “Black Cats.”

The writer Pocock and Gary Powers Jr., the son of the pilot shot down by the Soviets and the co-founder of the Chilly Battle Museum in Washington, DC, defined the pondering behind the squadron and its mission within the 2018 documentary movie.

The opposite CIA unit in Taiwan

  • Coinciding with the Black Cat Squadron, the Black Bat Squadron was shaped underneath the cooperation of the Central Intelligence Company and Taiwan’s air drive, in response to a Taiwan Protection Ministry web site.
  • Whereas the Black Cats have been accountable for high-altitude reconnaissance missions, the Black Bats carried out low-altitude reconnaissance and digital intelligence gathering missions over mainland China from Might 1956. It additionally operated in Vietnam in tandem with the US in the course of the Vietnam Battle.
  • Between 1952 to 1972, the Black Bats misplaced 15 plane and 148 lives, in response to the web site.
  • “The Black Cats program was applied as a result of the American authorities wanted to seek out out data over mainland China – what have been their strengths and weaknesses, the place have been their navy installations situated, the place have been their submarine bases, what kind of plane have been they creating,” stated Powers Jr.

    Lloyd Leavitt, a retired US Air Pressure lieutenant basic, described the mission as “a joint intelligence operation by america and the Republic of China.”

    “American U-2s have been painted with ROC insignia, ROC pilots have been underneath the command of a ROC (Air Pressure) colonel, overflight missions have been deliberate by Washington, and each international locations have been recipients of the intelligence gathered over the mainland,” Leavitt wrote in a 2010 private historical past of the Chilly Battle printed by the Air Pressure Analysis Institute in Alabama.

    One of many first males to fly the U-2 for Taiwan was Mike Hua, who was there when the primary of the planes arrived at Taoyuan Air Base in Taiwan in early 1961.

    “The quilt story was that the ROC (air drive) had bought the plane, that bore the (Taiwanese) nationwide insignia. … To keep away from being confused with different air drive organizations stationed in Taoyuan, the part grew to become the thirty fifth Squadron with the Black Cat as its insignia,” Hua wrote in a 2002 historical past of the unit for the journal Air Pressure Historic Basis.

    On the Taiwan airbase, Individuals labored with the Taiwan pilots, serving to to take care of the plane and course of the knowledge. They have been know as Detachment H, in response to Hua.

    “All US personnel have been ostensibly staff of the Lockheed Plane Firm,” Hua wrote.

    The ROC air drive and US representatives inked an settlement on the operation, giving it the code title “Razor,” Hua wrote.

    He described the intelligence gained by the flights as “great” and stated it was shared between Taipei and Washington.

    “The missions lined the huge inside of the Chinese language mainland, the place virtually no aerial pictures had ever been taken,” he wrote. “Every mission introduced again an aerial photographic map of roughly 100 miles vast by 2,000 miles lengthy, which revealed not solely the exact location of a goal, but in addition the actions on the bottom.”

    Different sensors on the spy planes gathered data on Chinese language radar capabilities and extra, he stated.

    Between January 1962 and Might 1974, in response to a historical past on Taiwan’s Protection Ministry’s web site, the Black Cats flew 220 reconnaissance missions masking “greater than 10 million sq. kilometers over 30 provinces within the Chinese language mainland.”

    When requested for additional touch upon the Black Cats, the ministry referred CNN to the printed supplies.

    “The concept was that black cats exit at night time, and the U-2 would often launch within the darkness. Their cameras have been the eyes, and it was very stealthy, quiet, and laborious to get. And so combining the 2 tales, they grew to become often known as the Black Cats,” the writer Pocock stated within the documentary.

    The squadron even had its personal patch, apparently drawn by one in all its members, Lt. Col. Chen Huai-sheng, and impressed by a neighborhood institution frequented by the pilots.

    However the Black Cats, like Powers Sr. two years earlier than, have been about to seek out out their U-2s weren’t impervious to antiaircraft hearth.

    On September 9, 1962, Chen grew to become the primary U-2 pilot to be shot down by a Folks’s Liberation Military antiaircraft missile. His aircraft went down whereas on a mission over Nanchang, China.

    Sailors assigned to Explosive Ordnance Disposal Group 2 recover a high-altitude surveillance balloon off the coast of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, Feb. 5, 2023. (U.S. Navy Photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Tyler Thompson)

    See images displaying US Navy recovering spy balloon from water

    Within the following years, three extra Black Cat U-2 pilots have been killed on missions over China because the PLA discovered learn how to counter the U-2 missions.

    “The mainland Chinese language discovered from their radars the place these flights have been going, what their targets have been, they usually started to construct websites for the missiles however transfer them round,” Pocock stated.

    “So they’d construct a website right here, occupy that website for some time but when they thought the following flight can be going over right here, they’d transfer the missiles. It was a cat-and-mouse recreation, actually a black cat and mouse recreation between the routines from the flights from Taiwan and people air protection troops of the (Chinese language) mainland, figuring out the place the following flight would go.”

    In July 1964, Lt. Col. Lee Nan-ping’s U-2 was shot down by a PLA SA-2 missile over Chenghai, China. In keeping with the Taiwan Protection Ministry he was flying out of a US naval air station within the Philippines and making an attempt to realize data on China’s provide routes to North Vietnam.

    In September 1967, a PLA missile hit the U-2 being flown by Capt. Hwang Rung-pei over Jiaxin, China, and in Might 1969, Maj. Chang Hsieh suffered a “flight management failure” over the Yellow Sea whereas reconnoitering the coast of Hebei province, China. No hint of his U-2 was ever discovered, in response to Taiwan’s Protection Ministry.

    A U-2 Dragon Lady, from Beale Air Force Base, lands at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam, Hawaii, in 2017.

    Two different Taiwanese U-2 pilots have been shot down however survived, solely to spend years in Communist captivity.

    Maj. Robin Yeh was shot down in November 1963 over Jiujiang, Jiangxi province.

    “The aircraft misplaced management when the explosion of the missile took out a part of the left wing. The aircraft spiraled down. A number of shrapnel flew into the aircraft and hit each of my legs,” Yeh, who died in 2016, recalled in “The Courageous within the Higher Air: An Oral Historical past of The Black Cat Squadron” printed by Taiwan’s Protection Ministry.

    He stated that following his seize Chinese language medical doctors eliminated 59 items of shrapnel from his legs, however couldn’t take all of it out.

    “It didn’t actually have an effect on my day by day life, however throughout winter my legs would damage, which affected my mobility. I assume this is able to be my lifelong reminiscence,” Yeh stated.

    Maj. Jack Chang’s U-2 was hit by a missile over Interior Mongolia in 1965. He, too, suffered dozens of shrapnel accidents and bailed out, touchdown on a snowy panorama.

    “It was darkish on the time, stopping me from searching for assist anyway, so I needed to wrap myself up tightly with the parachute to maintain myself heat … After ten hours when daybreak broke, I noticed a village of yurts afar, so I dragged myself and sought assist there. I collapsed as quickly as I reached a mattress,” he recalled within the oral historical past.

    Neither Yeh nor Chang, who have been assumed killed in motion, would see Taiwan once more for many years. The pilots have been finally launched in 1982 into Hong Kong, which on the time was nonetheless a British colony.

    Nonetheless, the world into which they emerged had modified vastly within the intervening years. The US now not had a mutual protection treaty with Taiwan and had formally switched diplomatic recognition from Taipei to Beijing.

    Although the Chilly Battle US-Taiwan alliance was now not, the CIA introduced the 2 pilots to the US to reside till they have been lastly allowed to return to Taiwan in 1990.

    Members of the 5th Reconnaissance Squadron

    Certainly, by the point of their launch CIA management of the U-2 program had lengthy since ceased. It had turned the planes over to the US Air Pressure in 1974, in response to a US Air Pressure historical past.

    Two years later, the Air Pressure’s 99th Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron and its U-2s moved into Osan Air Base in South Korea. Commander Lt. Col. David Younger gave the situation the “Black Cat” moniker.

    As we speak, the unit is named the fifth Reconnaissance Squadron.

    However US U-2s proceed to be concerned in what could be characterised as “cat-and-mouse” actions and their actions proceed to make waves often in China. In 2020, Beijing accused the US of sending a U-2 right into a no-fly zone to “trespass” on live-fire workout routines being carried out by China under.

    The US Pacific Air Forces confirmed to CNN on the time that the flight had taken place, however stated it didn’t violate any guidelines.

    In the meantime, for these concerned within the unique Black Cats, there are few regrets – even for many who have been captured.

    Yeh advised the documentary makers he had fond recollections of life at 70,000 toes.

    “We have been actually up within the air. The view we had was additionally totally different; we had the hen’s eye view. Every thing we noticed was huge,” he stated.

    Chang too felt no bitterness.

    “I like flying,” he stated. “I didn’t die, so I’ve no regrets.”

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